Mencius

Mencius 孟子(英文版)
Mencius (Selections)
Translated by Charles Muller, Tōyō Gakuen University
Updated: August 14, 2003
 
  Table of Contents
  1A. King Hui of Liang (part one)
  1B. King Hui of Liang (part two)
  2A. Kung Sun Ch'ou (part one) 公孫丑上
  3A. T’eng Weng Kung (part one)
  3B. T’eng Weng Kung (part two)
  4A. Li Lou (part one) 離婁上
  4B. Li Lou (part two) 離婁下
  6A. Kao Tzu (part one) 吿子上
  6B. Kao Tzu (part two) 吿子下
  7A. Chin Hsin (part one) 盡心上
  7B. Chin Hsin (part two) 盡心下
 
  1A. King Hui of Liang (part one)
  孟子見梁惠王。王曰,「叟,不遠千里而來,亦將有以利吾國乎?」孟子對曰,「王何必曰利?亦有仁義而已矣。」「王曰:『何以利吾國?』大夫曰:『何以利吾家?』士庶人曰:『何以利吾身?』上下交征利,而國危矣!萬乘之國弑其君者,必千乘之家;千乘之國,弑其君者,必百乘之家。萬取千焉,千取百焉,不爲不多矣;苟爲後義而先利,不奪不饜。」「未有仁而遺其親者也,未有義而後其君者也。」「王亦曰仁義而已矣,何必曰利?」
  [1A:1] Mencius went to see King Hui of Liang. The King said: "My good man, since you haven't thought one thousand li too far to come and see me, may I presume that you have something with which I can profit my kingdom?"
  Mencius said: "Why must you speak of profit? What I have for you is Humaneness and Rightness, and that's all. If you always say 'how can I profit my kingdom?' your top officers will ask, 'how can we profit our clans?' The elites (shi)1 and the common people will ask: 'How can we profit ourselves?' Superiors and inferiors will struggle against each other for profit, and the country will be in chaos."
  "In a kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one thousand chariots. In a thousand-chariot kingdom, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one hundred chariots. Now, to have a thousand in ten thousand, or one hundred in a thousand is not really all that much. But if you put due-giving last and profit first, no one will be satisfied unless they can grab something."
  "There has never been a humane man who neglected his parents, and there has never been a just man who put his prince last in his priorities. King, can't we limit our conversation to humaneness and due-giving? Why must we discuss profit?"
  梁惠王曰:「寡人之於國也,盡心焉耳矣!河內凶,則移其民於河東,移其粟於河內;河東凶亦然。察鄰國之政,無如寡人之用心者;鄰國之民不加少,寡人之民不加多:何也?」
  孟子對曰:「王好戰,請以戰喩。填然鼓之,兵刃旣接,棄甲曳兵而走,或百歩而後止,或五十歩而後止;以五十歩笑百歩,則何如?」
  曰:「不可。直不百歩耳,是亦走也!」曰:「王如知此,則無望民之多於鄰國也。」 「不違農時,穀不可勝食也;數罟不入洿池,魚鼈不可勝食也;斧斤以時入山林,材木不可勝用也;穀與魚鼈不可勝食,材木不可勝用,是使民養生喪死無憾也;養生喪死無憾,王道之始也。」
  「五畝之宅,樹之以桑,五十者可以衣帛矣;雞豚狗彘之畜,無失其時,七十者可以食肉矣;百畝之田,勿奪於時,數口之家可以無饑矣;謹庠序之教,申之以孝悌之義,頒白者不負戴於道路矣;七十者衣帛食肉,黎民不饑不寒;然而不王者,未之有也!」
  「狗彘食人食而不知檢,塗有餓莩而不知發;人死,則曰:『非我也,歳也。』是何異於刺人而殺之,曰:『非我也,兵也!』王無罪歳,斯天下之民至焉。」
  [1A:3] King Hui of Liang said: "I exert my whole consciousness towards my people. When there is disaster in He-nei, I move the people to He-dong and bring grain to He-nei. When there is disaster in He-dong, I do likewise.2 Now, if you look at the government in neighboring kingdoms, there is no one who is as dedicated to his people as I. Yet why is it that the people don't move from other states and come to mine?"
  Mencius replied: "Your majesty, you like war, don't you? Let me make an example with war: The drummers have psyched the soldiers into the battlefield and the battle is engaged. Some soldiers throw off their heavy armor and flee, dragging their weapons. One fellow runs a hundred paces and stops. Another runs fifty paces and stops. What would you think if the one who ran fifty paces laughs at the one who ran a hundred?"
  The King said: "No way. Even though he didn't run a hundred paces, he still ran."
  Mencius said: "If you realize this, then you shouldn't expect people to move to your kingdom. If you don't interfere with the timing of the farmers, there will be more grain than can be eaten. If fine-mesh nets are kept out of the ponds and lakes, there will be more fish and turtles than you can eat. If loggers are regulated in their woodcutting, there will be more wood than can be used. When there is more grain, more fish and turtles than can be eaten, and more wood than can be used, the people will nourish the living and mourn the dead without resentment. Nourishing the living and mourning the dead without resentment is the beginning of the road to true kingship."
  "If mulberry trees are planted around homesteads of an acre, then people fifty years old can be clothed in silk. If, in the raising of fowl, pigs, dogs and swine, their breeding times are not missed, then people seventy years old can eat meat. If you do not upset the farming schedule in a farm of twenty acres, then a large clan will never be hungry. Pay careful attention to education, basing it on the Rightness of filial piety and respect for elders, and the gray-haired people will not be in the streets carrying heavy burdens on their backs. There has never been a case where the people of seventy were eating meat and the black-haired people were free from cold and hunger, where the king was not well regarded."
  "But [in your kingdom], dogs and swine eat men's food, and you don't control it. People are dying of starvation in the streets and it doesn't occur to you to distribute grain from the storehouses. People die, and you say: 'It's not my fault; it was a bad harvest.' How is this different from stabbing a man to death and saying, 'It wasn't me, it was the knife.' If you would stop placing the blame on bad harvests, all of the people in the country would come to you."
  梁惠王曰:「寡人願安承教。」
  孟子對曰:「殺人以梃與刃,有以異乎?」
  曰:「無以異也。」
  「以刃與政有以異乎?」
  曰:「無以異也。」
  曰:庖有肥肉,廏 有肥馬,民有飢色,野有餓莩,此率獸而食人也。獸相食,且人惡之;爲民父母行政,不免於率獸而食人,惡在其爲民父母也!仲尼曰:『始作俑者,其無後乎!』爲其象人而用之也,如之何其使斯民饑而死也。」
  [1A:4] King Hui of Liang said: "I would like to quietly receive your instruction."
  Mencius said: "Is there any difference between killing a man with a stick or a sword?"
  The King replied: "No difference."
  Mencius said: "Is there any difference between doing it with a sword and doing it with government?"
  "No difference" was the reply.
  Mencius said: "There are loads of fat meat in your kitchen while the people in the countryside are dying of starvation. Animals are even eating people. Now, men despise animals who feed on each other. And you say you want to be 'the parent of the people.' But in the actual handling of your government, you cannot even prevent animals from feeding on men. How can you be regarded as a 'parent of the people?' "
  "Confucius said: 'Wasn't the first fellow who made wooden images for burial with the dead remembered forever?' This is because he made images of men and used them for such a purpose. What memory shall there be of the man who made his people die of starvation?"
  梁惠王曰:「普國,天下莫強焉,叟之所知也。及寡人之身,東敗於齊,長子死焉;西喪地於秦七百里;南辱於楚:寡人恥之,願比死者一洒之,如之何則可?」
  [1A:5] King Hui of Liang said: "As you know, venerable sir, there is not a stronger state in the country than Chin. Since they attacked me, we have also lost on the east to Ch'i, where my eldest son died. On the west, we have lost one hundred li of territory to Ch'in and on the south we have been embarrassed by Ch'u. I have been shamed by this and would like to clear the slate for my ancestors once and for all. How can I do it?"
  孟子對曰:「地方百里而可以王。王如施仁政於民,省刑罰,薄税歛,深耕易耨;壯者以暇日修其孝悌忠信,入以事其父兄,出以事其長上,可使制梃以撻秦楚之堅甲利兵矣!」
  Mencius replied: "A territory one hundred li square is enough to constitute a viable kingship. Your majesty should give a humane government to the people, be careful in punishing crime; make the taxes light; plow the fields deeply and hoe them well. Then all the strong and healthy people can in their leisure time cultivate filial piety, sibling affection, loyalty and sincerity. If they do this, then when they are at home they can serve their fathers and elder brothers, and when they are out in the world they can serve their elders and superiors. These people will be able, with [only] sharpened sticks, to give a beating to Ch'in and Ch'u with their hard armor and sharp weapons. "
  彼奪其民時,使不得耕耨以養其父母,父母凍餓,兄弟妻子離散。彼陷溺其民,王往而征之,夫誰與王敵!故曰:『仁者無敵。』王請勿疑。」
  "Those rulers snatch the people's time so that they are unable to do the plowing and hoeing which is necessary to support their parents. Older and younger brothers, wives and children are separated and scattered. In this way these rulers trap and bury their own people. If you, King, would go and chastise them, who will oppose you? Don't doubt the ancient proverb: 'The Humane man has no one to oppose him.' "
  孟子見梁襄王。出語人曰:「望之不似人君,就之而不見所畏焉。卒然問曰:『天下惡乎定?』
  [1A:6] Mencius had an audience with King Hsiang of Liang. When he came out, he said to some people: "When I saw him at a distance, he did not look like a king, and when I approached him, there was nothing to be in awe of. Abruptly he asked me: 'How can the situation of the Central Kingdom be settled down?' "
  吾對曰:『定於一。』」「孰能一之?」「對曰:『不嗜殺人者能一之。』」「孰能與之?」
  "I answered: 'It can be settled down by unification.' "
  He said: 'Who can unify it?'
  "I replied: 'He who does not like killing men can unify it.' "
  "He asked: 'Who has the power to grant someone this ability?' "
  「對曰:『天下莫不與也。王知夫苗乎?七八月之間旱,則苗槁矣。天油然作雲,沛然下雨,則苗浡然興之矣。其如是,孰能禦之!今夫天下之人牧,未有不嗜殺人者也。如有不嗜殺人者,則天下之民皆引領而望之矣。試如是也,民歸之,由水之就下,沛然 誰能禦之!』
  "I answered again, saying: 'There is no one in the land who would not grant it. Do you know anything about farming? During the seventh and eighth months it gets dry and the plants wither. When there is a sudden downpour of rain, the plants come vibrantly to life. Your situation being like this, who will oppose you? Now, among those who are leaders in this country, there are none who dislike killing men. If there were one who disliked killing men, all the people in the country would stick their necks out merely to get a glimpse of him. If you were really like this, the people would come to you like water running downhill. Who could oppose you?' "
  齊宣王問曰:「齊桓普文之事,可得聞乎?」
  [1A:7] King Hsüan of Ch'i asked: "Can give me your analysis of what happened between Duke Huan of Ch'i and Duke Wen of Ch'in?3 "
  孟子對曰:「仲尼之徒,無道桓文之事者,是以後世無傳焉,臣未之聞也。無以,則王乎?」
  Mencius answered: "None of Confucius' disciples talked about Huan and Wen, so I have no significant information on them. So since I can't talk about them, how about discussing kingship?"
  曰:「德何如則可以王矣?」曰:「保民,而王莫之能禦也。」
  The king said: "What kind of qualities are necessary for real kingship?"
  Mencius said: "Take care of the people, and no one can oppose you."
  曰:「若寡人者,可以保民乎哉?」曰:「可。」曰:「何由知吾可也?」
  The king said: "Is someone like me capable of taking care of the people?"
  Mencius said: "Sure."
  The king said: "How do you know?"
  曰:「臣聞之胡齕曰:『王坐於堂上,有牽牛而過堂下者;王見之,曰:「牛可之?」對曰:「將以釁鐘。」王曰:「舍之;吾不忍其觳觫,若無罪而就死地。」對曰:「然則廢釁鐘與?」曰:「何可廢也?以羊易之。」』不識有諸?」
  "I heard this story from Hu-ho: He said you were sitting up in the main hall and a man walked past the lower part leading an ox. You saw this and asked: 'What are you doing with the ox?' He replied: 'We are going to consecrate a bell with its blood.' You said: 'Let it go—I can't stand to see the agony on its face, like that of an innocent person going to execution!' The man then answered: 'Shall we forget the consecration of the bell?' You said: 'How can it be forgotten? Substitute it with a sheep!' "
  Mencius then added: "I don't know if this is a true story."
  曰:「有之。」曰:「是心足以王矣。百姓皆以王爲愛也,臣固知王之不忍也。」
  The king said: "It is."
  Mencius said: "If you possess this kind of mind, you are capable of true kingship. The people all accused you of being cheap, but I am convinced that you really could not stand the sight of the ox."
  王曰:「然,誠有百姓者,齊國雖褊小,吾何愛一牛?即不忍其觳觫,若無罪而就死地,故以羊易之也。」
  The king said: "You are right. Yet the people really did think I was being cheap. But the truth is, even though Ch'i is a fairly small kingdom, how could I begrudge a lousy ox? I really couldn't stand to see the fear in its face, like that of an innocent man going to his execution. That's why I changed it for a sheep."
  曰:「王無異於百姓之以王爲愛也;以小易大,彼惡知之?王若隱其無罪而就死地,則牛羊何擇焉!」王笑曰:「是誠何心哉!我非愛其財而易之以羊也,宜乎百姓之謂我愛也。」
  Mencius said: "You should not think it strange that the people thought you were stingy. You changed a large animal for a small one, so how could they know your real motivation? If you were really pained at its innocently going to execution, what's the difference between an ox and a sheep?"
  The king laughed and said: "What was I really thinking? But I didn't change it because of the expense—no wonder the people have called me cheap!"
  曰:「無傷也,是乃仁術也,見牛未見羊也,君子之於禽獸也,見其生,不忍見其死;聞其聲,不忍食其肉:是以君子遠庖廚也。」
  Mencius said: "You have not done wrong. What you did was an act of humaneness. You saw the ox, but had not seen the sheep. When it comes to animals, if the Superior Man has seen them while alive, he cannot stand to watch them die. If he hears their screams, he cannot stand to eat their meat. Therefore he stays away from the kitchen."
 
  The king was pleased and said: "It is said in the Book of Odes: 'People have their minds, I fathom them.' What you have just said is exactly what happened with me. But when I sought within myself, I couldn't really see my own motivations. As you have shown me, there is compassion in my heart, but how can this be sufficient for kingship?"
  Mencius said: "Suppose someone said this to you: 'I am strong enough to lift six hundred kilos, but not strong enough to lift a feather; my eyesight is sharp enough to analyze the tip of autumn down, but I cannot see a wagon load of firewood. Can you go along with this?' "
  "Of course not."
  "Then isn't it quite odd that your compassion reaches to animals, but not down to the people? If the single feather is not lifted, it is because your strength is not used, and when the wagon-load of firewood is not seen it is because your vision is not used. The people's not experiencing your care is because your compassion is not used. Therefore your majesty's lack of true kingship is because of a lack of effort, not a lack of ability."
  The king asked: "Can you clarify the difference between non-effort and inability?"
  Mencius replied: "If it is the case of taking Mt. T'ai under your arm and leaping over the North Sea with it, and saying: 'I am unable' , then this is true inability. If it is the case of snapping a branch off a tree for an elder and you say 'I am unable,' this is non-effort, it is not inability. Thus, your majesty's not having a kingly hold over the people is not in the category of taking Mt. T'ai under your arm and leaping over the North Sea." It is the type of not breaking a branch. If you take care of you own elders, the common people will do the same for their elders. If you are kind to your young, the common people will be kind to their young—you will hold the kingdom in the palm of your hand. The Book of Odes says:
  His example affected his wife.
  It reached to his brothers,
  Such that he could manage
  His clan and his state.
  This means that if you just extend your heart to all others, and extend your compassion, it will be enough to take care of all those in the continent. If you do not extend your compassion, you will not even be able to take care of your own wife and children. The Way in which the ancients have surpassed all others is none other than this: Their goodness extended through everything they did, and nothing more.
  "Now your compassion is sufficient to reach to animals, yet lacks the effectiveness to reach the people. Isn't that something? By weighing we know what is light and heavy. By measuring we know long and short. All things are like this, and especially the mind, so why don't you measure it, king? Nowadays you build up your armaments, endanger your soldiers and officers and instigate trouble with other heads of state. Does this give you pleasure?"
  "No, how could I enjoy this? I do it to get what I really want."
  Mencius said: "What is it that you really want?"
  The king just smiled and kept his mouth shut.
  Mencius continued: "Are all your rich and sweet foods not enough for your taste? Is your wardrobe of winter and summer clothes not enough for your body? Or do you not have enough fancy toys to satisfy your eyes? Or do you not have enough servants and concubines to come before you and satisfy you? All your numerous ministers can certainly get all these things for you, so how can you still want more of these?"
  The king said: "No, I don't want these."
  "Then it is obvious what it is you really want," said Mencius, "you want to expand your territory, make vassals of Ch'in and Ch'u, rule the Middle Kingdom, get control over the outlying tribes. Doing the kinds of things you have been doing to get what you want is like climbing a tree to catch fish."
  "Is it that bad?"
  "Even worse. If you climb a tree to catch fish, even though you won't catch anything, there will be no great calamity. But if you completely devote all of you energies to getting what you want in this way, you are sure to meet with disaster."
  The king said: "Can you explain how?"
  Mencius said: "If there is a war between Tsou and Ch'u, who do you think will win?"
  "Ch'u will win."
  "You are right, and that means that you know that a small state cannot go up against a large state, that a few cannot oppose many, that the weak cannot contend with the strong. The continental territories of one thousand square li are nine in number and Ch'i (your kingdom) only makes for one. If with one part you try to subdue the other eight, how is this different from Tsou's fighting Ch'u? Please reflect on this essential point."
  "Now if you initiate a government based on goodness, all the officials in China will want to come to your court; all the farmers will want to plow your fields; the merchants will want to store their goods in your marketplaces; all the travelers will want to go by your roads, and all the people in the land who are hassled by their rulers will want to come to you for help. If they feel this way, who will be able to stop them?"
  The king said: "I am dull-witted, and unable to carry this out. Please help me clarify my will by instructing me. Even though I am not so sharp, I will try to do it."
  Mencius said: "Only a shih is able to keep a steady mind without a steady livelihood. If the common people lack a steady livelihood, they cannot be secure. If they are not secure, there is nothing they will not do in terms of criminal, depraved and selfish acts. For you to follow them up and punish them once they have committed crimes in this situation is entrapment. How could a benevolent man rule and at the same time entrap his people?"
  "Therefore the intelligent ruler will regulate the livelihood of his people so that they have enough to support their parents and their own children. In good years they will eat their full, and in bad years they will never starve. After this you can goad them toward the good, because they will follow easily. As it stands now, you regulate the livelihood of the people in such a way that they do not have enough to take care of their parents or their children. They suffer even in the good years, and in the bad years they cannot escape death. All they can do is try to avoid starving to death, all the time fearing that they will not make it. What kind of free time will there be to cultivate propriety and Rightness?"
  "If you really want to bring this about, you'd better get back to the basics. If mulberry trees are planted on plots of one acre, people in their fifties can wear silk. If you do not pull the men away for battle during the breeding times of your livestock, people in their seventies can eat meat. If the proper planting, cultivation and harvesting times are not missed, the family of eight that lives off a twenty-acre farm will not go hungry. Pay careful attention to education, teaching the Rightness of filial piety and fraternity, and the gray-haired will not be seen in the streets carrying heavy burdens on their backs."
  "There has never been a case where the elderly wore silk and ate meat, and the black-haired people suffered from neither hunger nor cold, where the kingship was not genuinely respected."
 
 
  1B. King Hui of Liang (part two)
  [1B:10]
  Preliminary note: Ch'i attacked the state of Yen in the northwest in the autumn of 315 BC. Yen's prince, a weakling, had resigned his throne to his prime minister, and great confusion ensued, so that the people welcomed the appearance of the troops of Ch'i and made no resistance to them. K'uang Chang, the friend of Mencius mentioned in 4B:30 and 3B:10 led the Ch'i armies. The king and Heir Apparent of Yen were both killed.
  [Text]
  Ch'i attacked Yen and conquered it. King Hsüan of Ch'i said to Mencius, "Some say I should occupy Yen and some say I shouldn't. For a major kingdom to overcome another major kingdom of approximately equal strength and do it within fifty days is beyond just the manpower of the conquering army. If I do not occupy Yen, I may experience some bad fate; but what will happen, on the other hand, if I occupy it?"
  Mencius replied, "If you occupy it Yen and its people are really happy, then do so. In ancient times King Wu had this experience. If you try to occupy it and its people are against you, then you shouldn't occupy it. In ancient times King Wen had this experience."
  "When a major power attacks another and its armies are greeted by the people with gifts of food, etc., how could there be any other reason except that they are trying to get out of awful circumstances under their own ruler? But if, on the other hand, the people see you as a greater evil than their own dictator, they will never stop their resistance."
  [1B:11] Ch'i, having attacked Yen, occupied it. The surrounding states began to plan to come to the aid of Yen. King Hsüan of Ch'i said, "The surrounding powers are planning to attack me. How should I deal with them?"
  Mencius replied, "I have heard of a king with only seventy square li ruling the whole land—that was T'ang. But I have never heard of a King with a thousand square li (like you) having to be in fear. The Book of History says:"
  When T'ang first began his war of punishment, he started with (the kingdom of) Ko. The whole world believed in him, and so as his campaign went east, the tribes of the west became impatient, and as he went south, the tribes of the north became impatient. They all said: 'Why does he liberate us last?'
  The people waited for him the way we wait for rain after a long drought. The merchants continued their buying and selling and the farmers carried on their farming. (When he came to conquer,) T'ang punished their rulers, but took care of the common people. He was like the much-needed rainfall and the people were happy. Again, the Book of History says: "We await our King. When he comes, all will be restored."
  Now the prince of Yen was a tyrant, and you went and punished him. Yen's people thought you were saving them from oppression and they greeted your army with gifts of food. But now you murder Yen's family, chain up his younger relatives, destroy the ancestral temples and rob people's treasures. How can you expect them to take this?
  The world may fear your power, but if you keep trying to expand your influence and do not practice Humane government, the armies of the rest of the land will rise up to oppose you. You must issue orders at once to release the captives and stop the looting. Confer with the people of Yen. Appoint a ruler for them and then get out of there. Then those who are capable of hurting you will not attack.
 
 
2A. Kung Sun Ch'ou (part one) 公孫丑上
  公孫丑問曰:「夫子加齊之卿相,得行道焉,雖由此霸王不異矣。如此,則動心否乎?」
  [2A:2] Kung Sun Ch'ou asked Mencius: "Let's say you were to become the prime minister of Ch'i and have the opportunity to set up a good government. Even though your power would really not be different from that of a king, in handling this, wouldn't you lose your mental stability?"
  孟子曰:「否。我四十不動心。」
  Mencius said, "No. I haven't lost my mental stability since I was forty."
  曰:「若是,則夫子過孟賁遠矣?」
  Ch'ou said, "Then you have far surpassed Meng Pan."
  曰:「是不難,吿子先我不動心。」
  Mencius said, "It is not so difficult. Kao-tzu attained mental stability at a younger age than I."
  曰:「不動心有道乎?」
  "Is there a method for attaining mental stability?" asked Ch'ou.
  曰:「有。」「北宮黝之養勇也: 不膚撓,不目逃思以一毫挫於人,若撻之於市朝不受於;;褐寬博,亦不受於萬乘之君視刺萬乘之君,若刺褐夫:無嚴諸侯惡聲至,必反之。」
  "There is. For example, Pi Kung Yu had a method of developing his courage. When attacked, he would neither flinch nor turn away his eyes. If someone touched a single hair on his body, he would regard it as if he had been publicly beaten in the marketplace. What he would not take from a bum, he would not take from a great prince. He regarded the stabbing of a prince just the same as the stabbing of a bum. He had no fear of the great nobles. If slanderous words reached his ears, he would never let it go by without revenge."
  「孟施舍之所養勇也,曰:『視不勝猶勝也量敵而後進,慮勝而後會,是畏三軍;者也。舍豈能爲必勝哉,能無懼而已矣!』
  Mang Shih She also had a method of developing his courage. He said: "I regard victory and defeat as the same. To gauge the enemy and then attack; to plan the victory and then engage—this is to be afraid of the opposing army. How can I be sure of winning? I can only be fearless, and that's all."
  「孟施舍似曾子,北宮黝似子夏夫二子之勇,未知其孰賢然而孟施舍守約也。「昔者曾子謂子讓子襄曰:『子好勇乎?吾嘗聞大勇於夫子矣:「自反而不縮,雖褐寬博,吾不惴焉。自反而縮,雖千萬人吾往矣。」』
  Mang Shih She was like Tseng Tzu. Pi Kung Yu was like Tzu Hsia. Among Pi Kung and Mang, I don't know who is better, but Mang Shih She focused on the essentials. For example, in former times, Tseng Tzu said to Tzu Hsiang: "So, you like bravery, do you? I have heard from our Master about Great Bravery. If I reflect on myself and find that I am not right, then won't I even fear facing a bum off the street? But if I reflect on myself and find myself to be right, then even if it be an army of one hundred thousand, I will go forward."
  「孟施舍之守氣,又不如曾子之守約也。」
  But Mang Shih She's attention to his ch'i is still not equal to Tseng Tzu's attention to the essentials.
  [Comment] The Chinese ideograph ch'i originally means "air," especially breath. Through Mencius' usage, and the usage of later Taoists, martial artists and the Neo-Confucian school, its meaning becomes quite enhanced.
  Here ch'i, as breath, is understood as the vital connection between body and mind. It is the life-force which animates the body to greater or lesser degrees, depending upon its cultivation toward the vigor and vitality of the individual. In the terms with which Mencius describes it, ch'i can be compared to the prana of some Indian yogic systems, which can be cultivated through breath control and various other yogic practices. One of the most relevant points that Mencius makes in regard to the cultivation of ch'i, is that this cultivation is dependent, more than anything else, on the uninterrupted practice of Rightness.
  >曰:「敢問夫子之不動心,與吿子之不動心,可得聞與?」「吿子曰:『不得於言,勿求於心不得於心,勿求於氣;。』不得於心,勿求於氣,可不得於言,勿;求於心,不可。夫志、氣之帥也氣;、體之充也。夫志至焉,氣次焉。故曰:『持其志,無暴其氣。』」
  Ch'ou asked, "Will you please tell me about your 'mental stability' in relation to Kao Tzu's 'mental stability' ?"
  Mencius replied, "Kao Tzu says that what cannot be attained through words should not be sought for in the mind, and that what cannot be attained in the mind should not be sought for through the ch'i. This latter proposition is correct, but the first one is not. The will is the director of the ch'i, and the ch'i is something that permeates the body. So the will is primary and the ch'i is secondary. Therefore, it is said: 'Hold on to your will; do not scatter your ch'i.' "
  「旣曰:『志至焉,氣次焉。』又曰:『持其志,無暴其氣』者,何也?」
  Ch'ou said, "You just said that the will is primary; and the ch'i is secondary. Now you say, 'hold on to your will; don't scatter your ch'i.' Why do you say this?"
  曰:「志壹則動氣,氣壹則動志也。今有蹶者趨者,是氣也,而反動其心。」
  Mencius said, "The will influences the ch'i and the ch'i influences the will. For instance, jumping and running, though most directly concerned with the ch'i, also have an effect on the mind."
  「敢問夫子惡乎長?」
  "May I ask in what it is that you are superior?"
  曰:「我知言,我善養吾浩然之氣。」
  "I understand language, and I am good at nourishing my vast ch'i."
  「敢問何謂浩然之氣?」
  "What do you mean by 'vast ch'i' " ?
  曰:「難言也。」 「其爲氣也,至大至剛以直養而無害,則塞于天地之間。其爲氣也,配義與道無是,餒矣。是集義所生者,非義襲而取之也。行有不慊於心,則餒矣。我故曰:『吿子未嘗知義,』以其外之也。必有事焉而勿正,心勿忘,勿助長也。無若宋人然。宋人有閔其苗之不長而揠之者芒芒然歸,謂其人曰:;『今日病矣,豫助苗長矣。』其子趨而往視之,苗則槁矣。天下之不助苗長者寡矣。以爲無益而舍之者,不耘苗者也。助之長者,揠苗者也。非徒無益,而又害之。」
  "That is difficult to explain. Ch'i can be developed to great levels of quantity and stability by correctly nourishing it and not damaging it, to the extent that it fills the space between Heaven and Earth. In developing ch'i, if you are connected with Rightness and the Tao, you will never be in want of it. It is something that is produced by accumulating Rightness, and is not something that you can grab from superficial attempts at Rightness. If you act without mental composure, you will become ch'i-starved."
  "Therefore I would say that Kao Tzu has not yet understood Rightness, since he regards it as something external. You must be willing to work at it, understanding that you cannot have precise control over it. You can't forget about it, but you can't force it to grow, either."
  "You don't want to be like the man from Sung. There was a man from Sung who was worried about the slow growth of his crops and so he went and yanked on them to accelerate their growth. Empty-headed, he returned home and announced to his people: 'I am so tired today. I have been out stretching the crops.' His son ran out to look, but the crops had already withered. Those in the world who don't 'help their crops by pulling' are few indeed. There are also those who regard all effort as wasteful and don't even weed their crops. But those who think they can hurry their growth along by forcing it, are not only not helping their ch'i, but actually harming it!"
  「何謂知言?」
  Ch'ou asked, "What do you mean when you say 'I understand language' ?"
  曰:「詖辭知其所蔽,淫辭知其所陷,邪辭知其所離,遁辭知其所窮。生於其心,害於其政發於其政,害於其事;。聖人復起,必從吾言矣。」
  Mencius said, "When I hear deceptive speech, I know what it is covering up. When I hear licentious speech, I know its pitfalls. When I hear crooked speech, I know where it departs from the truth. When I hear evasive speech, I know its emptiness. Once born in a person's mind, these words harm the government. Spreading through the government, they damage all sorts of affairs. When a future sage appears, he will attest to my words."
  Ch'ou said: "Tsai Wo and Tzu Kung were eloquent. Zan Niu, Min-tzu and Yen Yüan also spoke well but were known for their virtuous conduct. Confucius embodied both, but when questioned about it, said, 'When it comes to speaking, I am not so good.' In this case are you (Mencius) a sage?"
  Mencius said: "How can you ask me this? When Tzu Kung asked Confucius if he was a sage, Confucius said, 'Sagehood is beyond me. I study without getting bored and teach without getting tired.' Tzu Kung said: 'Studying without boredom is wisdom, teaching without weariness is Humaneness. Having Humaneness and wisdom, you are a sage indeed, Master!' "
  Now if Confucius could not accept the name of "sage," how can I?
  Ch'ou said, "I once heard this: Tzu Hsia, Tzu Lu and Tzu Chang all had one piece of sagehood, and Zan Niu, Min Tzu and Yen Yüan embodied it fully, though in an unmanifest way. May I ask where you stand among these men?"
  "Let's leave this aside for now." said Mencius.
  Ch'ou then asked, "What about Po Yi and I Yin?"
  Mencius said, "They had different ways. The way of not serving a ruler he didn't respect, not taking charge of a people whom he didn't approve; coming forward when there was good government and retiring when there was disorder—this was the way of Po Yi."
  "Serving any ruler, taking charge of any people; coming forward when there was good government, coming forward when there was disorder—this was the way of I Yin."
  "Serving when it was proper to serve, retiring when it was proper to retire; continuing long when it was proper and finishing quickly where it was proper—this was the way of Confucius. I have not yet been able to conduct myself in the way of the ancient sages. But if I could study with one of them, I would choose Confucius."
  "Were Po Yi and I Yin comparable to Confucius?"
  "No way" Mencius replied. "Since the beginning of human existence, there has never been anyone like Confucius."
  "But weren't there at least some ways in which these men were equal to him?"
  "Sure. If any of them were to be the ruler of a territory of one hundred li, they would be able to get all the nobles to come to their court, and soon they would have control of the whole realm. And if the acquisition of the realm required a single unjust act, or the murder of one innocent man, they would not do it. In this, they would be the same."
  "Then may I ask how they would differ?"
  Mencius said: "Tsai Wo, Tzu Kung and Yu Jo all had enough wisdom to recognize a sage. If any one of them were in a low position, they would never have resorted to flattery to get something more desirable."
  "Tsai Wo said, 'From what I have seen of our Master, he was far superior to Yao and Shun.' "
  "Tzu Kung said, 'I have seen his propriety and have understood his ways of government. I have heard his music and recognize his virtue. From a hundred generations after, through a hundred generations of kings, none will be able to improve on him. From the beginning of human existence, there has never been anyone like the Master.' "
  "Yu Jo said, 'How it be so only among men? Among mammals there is the Ch'i-lin; among birds there is the phoenix; among hills, Mt. T'ai; among puddles and rivulets, the rivers and oceans. Now, each of these are of the same species, and the sage is of the same species as man, but he emerges from the group and stands out from the crowd. From the beginning of human existence, there has never been one as outstanding as Confucius.' "
  [2A:3] Mencius said, "He who uses force as a pretense of Humaneness is the de-facto strongman among the princes. But such a strongman must have a large state in order to be effective. The man who uses his virtue to practice Humaneness is the true king. To be a real king you don't need an especially large territory. T'ang did it with only seventy li and King Wen did it with only one hundred li. When you use your power to force people into submission, they will never submit with their hearts; it is only because they don't have enough strength to resist. When people submit to virtue, they are happy from the bottom of their hearts, and they submit sincerely, the way the seventy disciples submitted to Confucius. The Book of Odes says:"
  From the west, from the east,
  From the south, from the north;
  No one thought of not-submitting.
  This is what I am talking about.
  [2A:4] Mencius said: "Humaneness brings glory and non-Humaneness brings disgrace. So if you hate disgrace but still involve yourself in what is not Humaneness, it is like hating moisture and living in a basement. If you really hate it, you should honor virtue and respect the good. Install good men into positions of rank and give jobs to people of ability. During the breaks in warfare, you should take the opportunity to clarify your governmental procedures and legal codes. If you do this, even larger states will have a healthy respect for you. In the Book of Odes there is the verse that goes:"
  Before the sky was dark with rain
  I collected branches from the mulberry grounds
  And built doors and windows for my nest.
  Now, you all below,
  Who will laugh at me?4
  "Confucius said, 'Did not the writer of this poem understand the Tao of government?' If you are able to govern well your state or clan, who will dare to take you lightly?"
  "But when modern princes have any kind of respite they spend it on indolent pleasure-seeking and gratification, which is to invite misfortune. Fortune and misfortune come from no place other than yourself. The Book of Odes says:"
  Always speak according to the Mandate
  And you will invite much fortune.Odes, 241
 
  The T'ai Chia (a section in the Book of History) says:
  The calamities sent from Heaven can still be changed. But the calamities brought on by yourself—from these you cannot escape with your life.
  These two citations reflect my point.
  孟子曰:「尊賢使能,俊傑在位,則天下之士,皆悅而願立於其朝矣。
  [2A:5] Mencius said: "Respect the worthy and employ the capable; put talented people in key positions, then all the shih of the realm will be pleased and will want to be members of your court."
  「市廛而不征,法而不廛,則天下之商,皆悅而願藏於其市矣。
  In the market-places, charge land-rent, but don't tax the goods; or make concise regulations and don't even charge rent. Do this, and all the merchants in the realm will be pleased, and will want to set up shop in your markets.
  「關,譏而不征,則天下之旅,皆悅而願出於其路矣。
  At the borders, make inspections but don't charge tariffs, then all the travelers in the realm will be pleased and will want to traverse your highways.
  「耕者,助而不稅,則天下之農,皆悅而願耕於其野矣。
  If the farmers merely have to help each other with the government fields, and do not have to pay an additional tax, then all the farmers in the realm will be pleased, and will want to till your fields.
  「廛,無夫里之布,則天下之民,皆悅而願爲之氓矣。
  If you do not charge fines to the unemployed in your marketplaces, then all the people in the realm will be pleased, and will want to become your subjects.
  「信能行此五者,則鄰國之民,仰之若父母矣。率其子弟,攻其父母,自生民以來,未有能濟者也。如此,則無敵於天下。無敵於天下者,天吏也。然而不王者,未之有也。」
  "If you are really able to put these five points into practice, then the people from the neighboring states will look up to you as a parent. Now, there has never been a case of someone being able to consistently succeed in making children attack their own parents. This being the case, you will have no enemies in the realm. The one who has no enemies in the realm is the vicegerent of Heaven. There is no case of one who attained to this level, and who did not attain to true kingship."
  孟子曰:「人皆有不忍人之心。「先王有不忍人之心,斯有不忍人之政矣。以不忍人之心,行不忍人之政,治天下可運之掌上。
  [2A:6] Mencius said: "All people have a heart which cannot stand to see the suffering of others. The ancient kings had this heart which could not stand to see the suffering of others, and, with this, operated a government which could not stand to see the suffering of the people. If, in this state of mind, you ran a government which could not endure people's suffering, you could govern the realm as if you were turning it in the palm of your hand."
  「所以謂人皆有不忍人之心者:今人乍見孺子將入於井,皆有怵惕惻隱之心非所;以內交於孺子之父母也,非所以要譽於鄕黨朋友也,非惡其聲而然也。
  "Why do I say all human beings have a heart which cannot stand to see the suffering of others? Even nowadays, if an infant were about to fall into a well, anyone would be upset and concerned. This concern would not be due to the fact that the person wanted to get in good with the baby's parents, or because s/he wanted to improve his/her reputation among the community or among his/her circle of friends. Nor would it be because he/she was afraid of the criticism that might result from a show of non-concern."
  「由是觀之,無惻隱之心,非人也無羞惡之心,非人也無辭讓之心,非人也;;;無是非之心,非人也。
  "From this point of view, we can say that if you did lack concern for the infant, you would not be human. Also, to lack a sense of shame and disgust would not be human; to lack a feeling of humility and deference is to be "in-human" and to lack a sense of right and wrong is to be inhuman."
  「惻隱之心,仁之端也羞惡之心,義之端也辭讓之心,禮之端也是非之心,;;;智之端也。
  "The sense of concern for others is the starting point of Humaneness. The feeling of shame and disgust is the starting point of Rightness. The sense of humility and deference is the starting point of Propriety and the sense of right and wrong is the starting point of Wisdom."
  「人之有是四端也,猶其有四體也。有是四端而自謂不能者,自賊者也謂其君不;能者,賊其君者也。凡有四端於我者,知皆擴而充之矣。若火之始然,泉之始達。茍能充之,足以保四海茍不充之,不足以事父母;。」
  "People's having these four basic senses is like their having four limbs. Having these four basic senses and yet claiming inability to act on them is to cheat yourself. To say that the ruler doesn't have them is to cheat the ruler. Since all people have these four basic senses within themselves, they should all understand how to enhance and develop them. It is like when a fire just starts, or a spring first bubbles out of the ground. If you are able to develop these four basic senses, you will be able to take care of everybody within the four seas. If you do not develop them, you won't even be able to take care of your own parents."
  孟子曰:「矢人豈不仁於凾人哉!矢人惟恐不傷人,凾人惟恐傷人。巫匠亦然。故術不可不愼也。
  [2A:7] Mencius said: "How is it that the arrow-maker is being less Humane than the armor-maker? The arrow maker is worried about people not getting hurt, while the armor-maker is worried if people do get hurt. The situation is the same with the healer and the coffin maker. Therefore, you should be careful about choosing your occupation."
  "Confucius said: 'It is the degree of Humaneness in a village that determines its beauty. If you choose not to abide in Humaneness, how will you ever attain wisdom?' "
  Now Humaneness is that which Heaven prizes above all else, and it is the proper abode for human beings. Nobody can be hindered from being Humane by anyone else—this is merely a hindrance to wisdom. To be not-Humane and not wise is to lack propriety and Rightness and become a slave to others. Being a slave to others and being ashamed of it is like the bow-maker being ashamed of making bows and the arrow-maker being ashamed of making arrows. If you are ashamed of these things you should work at your Humaneness. The Humane person is like an archer. The archer prepares himself before shooting. If, upon shooting, he misses the bull's-eye, he does not blame the man who beat him. He turns and reflects on himself.
  [2A:8] Mencius said: "When someone told Tzu Lu about one of his faults, he was happy. When Yu heard words of goodness, he would bow in respect. The great Shun surpassed even these men. He regarded the goodness of others to be the same as his. He let go of his arbitrariness and followed others, happily learning from them in order to develop his goodness. From the time when he was a farmer, a potter and a fisherman, up until he became emperor, he never stopped learning from others."
  "To learn from others to develop one's goodness is also to develop goodness together with others. Therefore, for the Superior Man, there is nothing greater than to develop goodness together with others."
  孟子曰:「伯夷非其君不事,非其友不友,不立於惡人之朝,不與惡人言立於惡;人之朝,與惡人言,如以朝衣朝冠,坐於塗炭。推惡惡之心,思與鄕人立,其冠不正,望望然去之,若將浼焉。是故,諸侯雖有善其辭命而至者,不受也不受也;者,是亦不屑就已。
  [2A:9] Mencius said: "Po Yi would not serve a ruler he did not respect, and would not hang around with people he didn't like. He wouldn't attend the court of an evil prince and wouldn't converse with an evil person. To attend the court of an evil prince, or converse with an evil person, would be the same for him as wearing the ceremonial gown and cap and sitting in mud and charcoal. Furthermore, if he were standing with a villager who hat was on crooked, he would leave him in embarrassment, as if he would be polluted by it. Therefore, even if one of the nobles sent him something with good intentions, he would often not accept it. Indeed, he would not let anything near him that he considered dirty."
  「柳下惠不羞汙君,不卑小官進不隱賢,必以其道,遺佚而不怨,阨窮而不憫;。故曰:『爾爲爾,我爲我雖袒裼裸裎於我側,爾焉能浼我哉!』故由由然與之偕而不自失焉。援而止之而止援而止之而止者,是亦不屑去已。」
  Hui Liu Hsia was not ashamed to be associated with an impure prince, and was not embarrassed to hold a low-level job. He would show himself without concealing his worth, always keeping to what he considered to be the right way. When he was let go from a job, he did not get resentful, and when in dire straits, he did not complain. Therefore, he used to say: 'You are you and I am I. Even if you stand right next to me wearing no shirt, you cannot pollute me.' Thus he associated with people freely, without losing himself. When pressed to stay in government he would stay. In this lack of a need to escape, we can see that he did not need to avoid that which he considered unclean.
  孟子曰:「伯夷隘,柳下惠不恭,隘與不恭,君子不由也。」
  Po Yi was rigid and Hui Liu Hsia was too relaxed. The Superior Man does not like to be too rigid or too relaxed.
 
3A. T'eng Weng Kung (part one)
 
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  3B. T'eng Weng Kung (part two)
  [3B:2] Ching Ch'un said: "Are not Kung Sun Yen and Chang I great men? If they get angry just once, all the nobles are afraid. If they are relaxed, then the realm is quiet."
  Mencius said: "How can you call them great just because of this? Have you not studied the Record of Rites? When a young man is capped (reaches manhood) his father instructs him. At the marriage of a young woman, the mother instructs her as she walks her to the door. She admonishes her, saying, 'When you go to your husband's house, you must respect him and be careful not to be disagreeable. To be properly obedient is the way of wives and concubines.' "
  If you dwell in the great house of the world, are established in your correct position in the world, walk the great Path of the world; if you attain your ambitions for office, and then share your goodness with the people—or, not attaining your ambitions for office and walking alone on your own Path; if wealth and honor do not dissipate you, poverty and low status do not make you move from your principles; authority and might do not distort you: Then you can be called a "great man."
 
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  4A. Li Lou (part one) 離婁上
 
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  4B. Li Lou (part two) 離婁下
  孟子曰:「天下之言性也,則故而已矣;故者,以利爲本。所惡於智者,爲其鑿也。如智者若禹之行水也,則無惡於智矣。 禹之行水也,行其所無事也。如智者亦行其所無事,則智亦大矣。 天之高也,星辰之遠也。苟求其故,千歳之日至,可坐而致也。」
  [4B:26] Mencius said: "What the people in the world call 'the nature of people' is based on what they have done, and nothing more. In the case of what people have done, we take as most fundamental whether the acts were beneficial or not. The reason the [present-day] so-called wise men are disliked, is because of the way they bore into things [to try to bring about some conclusions]. If these wise men would just do something [of benefit] like Yu did when he handled the water works projects [and stopped the flooding], then there would not be such a dislike of wise men. When Yu handled the flooding problems, he did it as if it was not a big deal. If our wise men could, in the same way, do things as if they were not a big deal, then there wisdom would be considered to be great. Heaven is so high; the stars are so distant. If we investigate their works, through the solstices of a thousand years, we can sit and attain them."
 
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  6A. Kao Tzu (part one) 吿子上
  吿子曰:「性,猶杞柳也義,猶桮棬也以人性爲仁義,猶以杞柳爲桮棬。」
  [6A:1] Kao Tzu said: "Human nature is like a willow tree (the wood of which is good for making vessels) and Rightness is like the cups and bowls that are carved out of, the wood. To make human nature to be Humane and Right is like making the wi, llow wood into cups and bowls."
  孟子曰:「子能順杞柳之性,而以爲桮棬乎?將戕賊杞柳,而後以爲桮棬也?將戕賊杞柳而以爲桮棬,則亦將戕賊人以爲仁義與?率天下之人而禍仁義者,必子之言夫!」
  Mencius said: "Can you make cups and bowls while keeping the nature of, the willow? It is by destroying the willow that you make cups and bowls. If we destroy the willow to make cups and bowls, should we also destroy the human being to make Humaneness and Rightness? This kind of talk from you will certainly lead the people to see Humaneness and Rightness as anathema."
  吿子曰:「性,猶湍水也決諸東方則東流,決諸西方則西流;。人性之無分於善不善也,猶水之無分於東西也。」
  [6A:2] Kao Tzu said: "Human nature is like whirling water. If you let it out on the east side, it will go east. If you let it out on the west side, it will go west. Similarly, human nature has no predisposition for good or evil, just as water has no predisposition for east or west."
  孟子曰:「水信無分於東西,無分於上下乎?人性之善也,猶水之就下也人無有;不善,水無有不下。今未水:搏而躍之,可使過顙激而行之,可使在山;。是豈水之性哉,其勢則然也。人之可使爲不善,其性亦猶是也。」
  Mencius said: "It is true that water has no predisposition for east or west. But doesn't it have a predisposition for up and down? The goodness of the human nature is just like the downward tendency of water. Just as all water has a down-going tendency, all people have a tendency toward goodness."
  "Now you can splash water and make it fly over your head, or you can dam it and force it uphill, but these are after all, forcing it. You can push people into doing evil, but that is not their basic nature."
  吿子曰:「生之謂性。」
  [6A:3] Kao Tzu said: "What we mean by life is nature."
  孟子曰:「生之謂性也,猶白之謂白與?」曰:「然。」「白羽之白也,猶白雪之白白雪之白,猶白玉之白與?」
  Mencius said: "If life is nature, then this the same as saying white is whiteness?"
  "Yes."
  "Then is the whiteness of a feather the same as the whiteness of snow? And is the whiteness of snow the same as the whiteness of a pearl?"
  曰:「然。」
  "Yes."
  「然則犬之性,猶牛之性牛之性,猶人之性與?」
  "Then is the nature of a dog the same as the nature of a cow? And is the nature of a cow the same as the nature of a person?"
  吿子曰:「食、色,性也。仁,內也,非外也,義,外也,非內也。」
  [6A:4] Kao Tzu said: "By nature we desire food and ***. Humaneness is internal and not external, Rightness is external and not internal."
  孟子曰:「何以謂仁內義外也?」
  Mencius said: "How can you say Humaneness is internal and Rightness is external?"
  曰:「彼長而我長之,非有長於我也。猶彼白而我白之,從其白於外也。故謂之外也。」
  Kao Tzu replied: "If there is an old man and I regard him as old, it is not because the age is in me. It is like seeing something white. I regard it as white because the whiteness is outside of me. Therefore, I say Rightness is external."
  曰:「異於白馬之白也,無以異於白人之白也。不識長馬之長也,無以異於長人之長與?且謂長者義乎?長之者義乎?」
  Mencius said, "Maybe there is no difference in acknowledging the whiteness of a white horse and the whiteness of a white man, but is there no difference between the acknowledgement of the age of an old horse, and the age of an old man? And does Rightness consist in perceiving the age or acknowledging it?"
  曰:「吾弟則愛之,秦人之弟則不愛也:是以我爲悅者也,故謂之內。長楚人之長,亦長吾之長:是以長爲悅者也,故謂之外也。」
  Kao Tzu said: "I love my younger brother, but I might not love the younger brother of a man from Ch'in. This depends on me, so I call it 'internal.' I respect the age of a man of Ch'u the same way I respect the age of a man of my family. Since this depends on the age, I say it is 'external.' "
  曰:「耆秦人之炙,無以異於耆吾炙。夫物則亦有然者也,然則耆炙亦有外與?」
  Mencius said, "Our enjoyment of the roast beef of Ch'in does not differ from that of our own roast beef. If such a thing as roast beef is like this, then is our enjoyment of roast beef also 'external?' "
  公都子曰:「吿子曰:『性無善無不善也。」「或曰:『性可以爲善,可以爲不善。』是故,文、武興,則民好善,幽、厲興,則民好暴。
  [6A:6] Kung Tu-tzu said: "Kao Tzu says that human nature is neither good nor evil. Others say that human nature can be made good or evil. That is why when Kings Wen and Wu were in power, the people loved goodness, and when Yu and Li were in power, they enjoyed inflicting pain."
  「或曰:『有性善,有性不善。』是故,以堯爲君而有象,以瞽瞍爲父而有舜,以紂爲兄之子,且以爲君,而有微子啟、王子比干。
  "Still others say that some people are inherently good and some are inherently evil. Therefore, under a good ruler like Yao, there was such an evil man as Hsiang; and to such a bad father as Ku-sou, a good son Shun was born; and with a nephew of the senior branch as evil as Chou on the throne, such good uncles as Ch'i, Viscount of Wei, and Prince Pi Kan lived."
  「今曰性善,然則彼皆非與?」
  "Now you say that human beings are inherently good. Then are all the others wrong?"
  孟子曰:「乃若其情,則可以爲善矣,乃所謂善也。「若夫爲不善,非才之罪也。
  Mencius said: "When I say human beings are inherently good, I am talking about their most fundamental emotional qualities. If someone does evil, it is not the fault of their natural endowment. Everyone has the feeling of concern for the well-being of others; everyone has the sense of shame and disgust at their own evil; everyone has the sense to treat others courteously and respectfully; everyone has the sense of right and wrong."
  The feeling of concern for the well-being of others is Humaneness. The sense of shame and disgust is Rightness; the sense to treat others with courtesy and respect is Propriety. The sense of right and wrong is Wisdom. Humaneness, Rightness, Propriety and Wisdom are not forced onto us from the outside. They are our original endowments—you have really not thought it through, have you?
  Thus it is said: 'If you strive for it, you will gain it; if you ignore it, you will lose it.' Men differ in terms of actualization: some are double, some fivefold and some manifest it to an incalculable degree. This difference is because some are not able to fully develop their natural endowments. The Book of Odes says:
  Heaven gives birth to all men
  And each thing possesses its principle
  When people maintain this norm
  They come to love its splendid virtues.
  "Confucius said, 'The writer of this poem certainly knew what he was talking about.' Therefore, wherever there is anything, there is a concomitant principle. When the people embrace the norms of goodness, they can enjoy its splendid virtues."
  [6A:7] Mencius said: "In years of good harvest the children are wholesome; in years of bad harvest, they are incorrigible. This is not because Heaven sends down different endowments of ability, but because their minds being sunk in depression."
  Now if you plant wheat and barley and cover them, and the soil is the same and the cultivation times are the same, they will all grow strongly. When it comes to their ripening time and there are differences, it is because of differences in soil fertility, the nourishment from rain or the amount of care-taking done by the farmers.
  So whenever things are of the same species, they will resemble each other. This being so, how could we doubt that it is the same with men? I and the sage are of the same species. Therefore, Lung-tzu said: 'Even if I don't know the foot-size when making sandals, I know enough that I won't make bushel baskets.' The similarity in sandals is because of the similarity in feet.
  We also have similarities in taste. That's how Yi Ya5 knows what I like beforehand. Imagine if his taste was inherently different than that of others like that of another species such as dog or horse. How could everybody love the taste of Yi Ya's cooking? The fact that everybody agrees that Yi Ya's cooking is the best shows the sameness in people's taste.
  It is the same with the ear. The fact that everyone takes the music of Conductor K'uang as the best, shows the sameness in the ears of everyone.
  It is the same with the eyes. Everyone knows that there is no one in the world as attractive as Tzu Tu. And if you don't think she is beautiful, you are blind.
  Therefore I say, there is a standard for taste, there is a standard for music, and there is a standard for beauty. Shouldn't it also be so with the things of the mind? What is it that is the same with people's minds? It is that they know the same principle and the same Rightness. The sage knows the sameness of our minds beforehand. Therefore his principles and Rightness fit to our minds, in the same way that the meat of grain-eating animals fits our taste.
  [6A:8] Mencius said, "The greenery on Niu Mountain was once beautiful, but since it was near a large city, it was attacked by lumberjacks. How could it retain its beauty? Still, by breathing in the sunlight and rain, how could new buds and sprouts not appear? But then cattle and sheep came and fed themselves, and by the time they were done, it was completely barren."
  If people saw this barrenness, they might have imagined that there had never been any greenery. How could the mountain be inherently like this?
  In the case of people, how could they lack the mind of Humaneness and Rightness? But the daily damaging of the goodness of their mind is just like the lumberjacks on the mountain. Being chopped down day after day, how can it manifest its natural beauty?
  One may breathe in fresh air day and night, but if you allow the enjoyment of evil doings with people to close in on you, the air gets thin, and your daytime activities stifle you. Because of this stifling, the fresh air is insufficient. Being insufficient, your goodness of mind is not nourished, and there will be little difference between you and the animals. People see our animalistic nature and assume that we have never had great endowments. How could this be our real nature?
  Therefore, if it is properly nourished, there is nothing that will not grow. If it is not nourished, there is nothing that will not die. Confucius said: "Use it and you will keep it; ignore it and you will lose it. No one knows the times of its coming or going, nor its location." What else could he be talking about but the mind?
  [6A:9] Mencius said, "No wonder the king is not wise. With even the hardiest plants in the world, if you expose them to a day of heat and ten days of cold, they will not be able to grow. I rarely have a chance to see the king, and after I leave he is approached by the cold ones. How can I make his wisdom grow?"
  Now chess is actually a minor art, but if you don't concentrate well while learning it, you'll never be any good. Chessman Ch'iu is the best player in the country, and let's say two men are learning from him. One man concentrates completely on everything Ch'iu says, while the other one, while listening, is thinking about that goose over there and how he would string up a retrievable arrow and shoot it. Even though he is learning together with the other man, he will never be equal to him. Is this because of a difference in intelligence? Of course not.
  [6A:10] Mencius said, "I like fish and I like bear's paw, but if I have to choose between them, I will let go of the fish and take the bear's paw. I like life and I like Rightness. But if I have to choose between them I will let go of life and take Rightness."
  I want life, but there are things more important to me than life. Therefore there are things that I won't do just to live. I hate death, but there are things that I hate more than death, and thus there are certain kinds of suffering that I won't avoid.

  If you teach a man to value nothing more than life, then what means will he not use in order to save his life? If you teach people to hate nothing more than death, then what will they not do, in order to avoid death?
  But there are some things that people will not do to save their lives and some things that people will not do to avoid death. This means that there are things more important to them than life, and more hateful to them than death. It is not only the worthy who have this capacity. All people have it, but the worthy are able to be consistent in it.
  When a bowl of rice or a cup of soup lies between life and death, and you offer it in a nasty way, even a bum off the street will not accept it. If you kick it at him with your feet, even a beggar will not take it.
  Yet a man will accept a huge sum of money without any consideration of propriety. What can the money add to his person? I can beautify my house, gain the favors of wives and concubines, or gain the attention of greedy acquaintances. Yet before, I would not receive a bowl of rice to save my life, but now I will accept lots of money for the beautification of my home, for the favors of wives and concubines or to give to greedy acquaintances. Was it also not possible to decline this?
  This is called "losing one's original mind."
  [6A:11] Mencius said, "Humaneness is the mind of human beings. Rightness is their path. To abandon the path and not follow it, or to lose the mind and not know enough to seek it: this is a pity indeed!"
  When people lose their chickens and dogs, they know enough to look for them, but when they lose their mind, they do not know enough to seek it. The way of study and inquiry is none other than the search for the lost mind.
  [6A:12] Mencius said, "Let's say there is a man whose fourth finger is crooked and will not straighten. It does not cause him pain or hinder his work, yet if he heard of someone who could fix it, he would easily travel as far as Ch'u to get it fixed, so that he might be like other men."
  We know enough to be bothered when our finger is not right, but don't know enough to be bothered when our mind is not right. This is called "not knowing the relative importance of things."
  [6A:15] Kung Tu Tzu said, "If all men are equal, how is it that there are greater and lesser men?"
  Mencius said, "Some follow their greater part and some follow their lesser part."
  "Why do some follow their greater part and some follow their lesser part?"
  Mencius said, "The organs such as the eye and ear cannot discriminate and are thus confused by things. Things are interconnected with other things, which lead one further away. The function of the mind is to discriminate—if you discriminate you will attain it. If you don't discriminate, you won't attain it. These are what Heaven has bestowed upon us. If you first establish yourself in the greater part, then the small part cannot be snatched away from you. This is the essential of being a great man."
  [6A:16] Mencius said: "There is a nobility that belongs to Heaven and a nobility that belongs to man. Humaneness, Rightness loyalty, truthfulness and a tireless delight in the good—these are the nobility of Heaven. Duke, Premier and Minister—these are the nobility of man."
  The ancients cultivated the Heavenly nobilities and the human nobilities naturally followed. Modern men cultivate the Heavenly nobilities in order to gain the human nobilities, and once they have these, they throw away the other. How mixed up they are! In the end they will lose everything.
  [6A:17] Mencius said, "All men desire honor, and though they all have something truly honorable within themselves, they do not reflect on it. The honor dispensed by people is not true honor. Those honored by Chao Meng can also be debased by Chao Meng. The Book of Odes says:"
  He has made us drunk with his wine
  And filled us with virtue.
  "This means they have been satiated with Humaneness and Rightness, and therefore they do not need to taste the fine foods of man. He has received broad and far-reaching praise and therefore has no desire for the finery of men."
  [6A:18] Mencius said: "Humaneness overcomes non-Humaneness just as water overcomes fire. But those of modernity who attempt the practice of Humaneness are like a person who tries to put out a burning wagon-load of wood with a cup of water. When it doesn't work, they say that water cannot put out fire. It is the same situation as those who attempt to deal with non-Humaneness in a similar fashion. In the end, they will be completely lost."
  [11.19] 孟子曰:「五穀者,種之美者也;苟爲不熟,不如荑稗。夫仁,亦在乎熟之而已矣。」
  [6A:19] Mencius said: "The seeds of the five grains are the best. But if they do not ripen, they are not even as good as wild grasses. The value of Humaneness also resides in its being brought to maturity."
  [6A:20] Mencius said: "When Yi taught archery, he always pulled the bow to its maximum. His students also had to strive to do this. A master carpenter, when teaching, always uses a compass and square. The students must also use a compass and square."
 
6B. Kao Tzu (part two) 吿子下
  [6B:2] . . . Mencius said, "The Tao is like a great road. How difficult is it to know about it? The problem with people is that they do not even seek for it. If you just return home and seek it, you will find teachers in excess."
  [6B:12] Mencius said, "If a Superior Man lacks integrity, to what shall he hold?"
  [6B:13] The prince of Lu invited Mencius' disciple Yo Chang to run his government. Mencius said, "When I heard about it, I was so happy that I couldn't sleep."
  Kung Sun Ch'ou asked, "Is Yo Chang so strong?"
  Mencius said, "No."
  "Is he so wise?"
  "No."
  "Is he broadly learned?"
  "No."
  "Then what made you so happy that you couldn't sleep?"
  Mencius said, "He is a man who loves goodness."
  "Is just loving goodness enough?"
  "Loving goodness is enough to excel throughout the whole realm. How much more so in just the state of Lu! If the ruler loves goodness, then the people from within the whole area inside the four seas will not consider far to travel one thousand li in order to share their own goodness with him. But if he dislikes goodness, then people will say 'He's a scoundrel and we know it.' "
  The speech and face of a rogue will keep people a thousand li away. If the good shih stay a thousand li away, then all the back-stabbers and brown-nosers in the realm will come to the ruler. Surrounded by back-stabbers and brown-nosers, can you really run a government?
  [6B:15] Mencius said, "Shun rose up from the grain fields; Fu Yüeh was found as a construction laborer, Chieh Ko was pulled up from his fish and salt; Sun Shu Ao from the sea, and Pai Li Hsi from the marketplace."
  Thus, when Heaven is going to give a great responsibility to someone, it first makes his mind endure suffering. It makes his sinews and bones experience toil, and his body to suffer hunger. It inflicts him with poverty and knocks down everything he tries to build.
  In this way Heaven stimulates his mind, stabilizes his temper and develops his weak points. People will always err, but it is only after making mistakes that they can correct themselves. Only when you have been mentally constricted can you become creative. It will show in your face and be heard in your voice, such that you will affect others. In your own state, if you don't have legal specialists and impartial advisors, and outside your state, you don't have enemy states to harass you, your own state will certainly fall to ruin. From this we can know that life is stimulated from adversity and anxiety, and death results from relaxation and pleasure.
  [6B:16] Mencius said: "There are many kinds of teaching techniques. Sometimes I teach by not teaching."
 
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  7A. Chin Hsin (part one) 盡心上
  孟子曰:「盡其心者,知其性也;知其性,則知天矣。存其心,養其性,所以事天也。殀壽不貳,修身以俟之,所以立命也。」
  [7A:1] Mencius said: "If you fully explore your mind, you will know your nature. If you know your nature, you know Heaven. To preserve your mind and nourish your nature is to serve Heaven. Not seeing duality between short life and long life, cultivate yourself by awaiting it. This is the way to set up your destiny."
  (13:2) 孟子曰:「莫非命也,順受其正。是故,知命者,不立乎岩牆之下。盡其道而死者,正命也。桎梏死者,非正命也。」
  [7A:2] Mencius said: "There is nothing that does not have a destiny, so follow your own and accept it as it is. If you do this, when you understand what destiny is, you will not stand under the wall of a high cliff. To fully traverse one's course and then die—this is correct destiny. To die in handcuffs and chains is not correct destiny."
  孟子曰:「求則得之。舍則失之;是求有益於得也,求在我者也。求之有道,得之有命;是求無益於得也,求在外者也。」
  [7A:3] Mencius said: "Search for it and you gain it. Ignore it and you lose it: this is the searching that has increase in its attainment, the seeking that adds to the self.
  "Search for it, keeping the Way, attain it, keeping with destiny. In this searching, there is no increase upon attainment. This is the searching through which you get rid of things."
  (13.4) 孟子曰﹕「萬物皆備於我矣。反身而誠,樂莫大焉。彊恕而行,求仁莫近焉。」
  [7A:4] Mencius said: "All things are prepared within me. If I reflect on myself and find that I am sincere, shouldn't I be overjoyed? If I conduct myself on the principle of reciprocity, will my search for Humaneness not be close at hand?"
  (13.5) 孟子曰﹕「行之而不著焉,習矣而不察焉,終身由之而不知其道者衆也。」
  [7A:5] Mencius said: "Acting without being clear, practicing without close observation: doing this to the end of their lives without ever understanding their own course. This is the way most people are."
  (13.6) 孟子曰﹕「人不可以無恥﹔ 無恥之恥,無恥矣。」
  [7A:6] Mencius said: "A person cannot do without shame. If you are ashamed of your shamelessness, you will not need to be ashamed. "
  (13.7) 孟子曰﹕「恥之於人大矣。爲機變之巧者,無所用恥焉。不恥不若人,何若人有!」
  [7A:7] Mencius said: "Shame is something important for people. Those who operate by clever opportunism have no use for shame. Not having shame, you will not be like others. What will you have in common with them? "
  (13.8) 「古之賢王,好善而忘勢,古之賢士,何獨不然!樂其道而忘人之勢。故王公不致敬盡禮,則不得亟見之。見且猶不得亟,而況得而臣之乎?」
  [7A:8] Mencius said: "The worthy kings of antiquity were impressed by goodness and not by power. How could the worthy shi be different? They delighted in their path and were oblivious to power in others. Therefore, if a king or duke did not treat them with full respect and thorough propriety, he would not have too many chances of seeing them. Not having much chance to see them, how could he gain their services?"
  (13.9) 孟子謂宋句踐曰﹕「子好游乎?吾語子游。人知之亦囂囂,人不知亦囂囂。」曰﹕「何如斯可以囂囂矣?」曰﹕「尊德樂義,則可以囂囂矣。故士窮不失義,達不離道。窮不失義,故士得已焉﹔達不離道,故民不失望焉。古之人得志,澤加於民﹔不得志,脩身見於世。窮則獨善其身,達則兼善天下。」
  [7A:9] Mencius, speaking to Sung Kou Chien, said, "You like traveling to different courts, don't you? Let me speak with you about this kind of traveling. If you are acknowledged, just be content, and if you are not acknowledged, just be content."
  Chien asked, "How do you go about 'just being content.' ?"
  Mencius said, "If you value virtue and enjoy Rightness, you can be content. Hence the gentleman in dire straits does not lose his sense of Rightness, and when successful, does not lose the Path. Since he does not lose his sense of Rightness when in dire straits, the gentleman is able to keep a grasp on himself. Since he does not lose the Path when he becomes successful, the people are not disappointed in him."
  "When the ancients achieved their aims, they shared it with the people. Not attaining their aims, their self-discipline was an example to succeeding generations. In dire straits they could only develop their own goodness. Successful, they could share their goodness with the whole world."
  (13.10) 孟子曰﹕「待文王而後興者,凡民也。若夫豪杰之士,雖無文王猶興。」
  [7A:10] Mencius said: "Almost all people wait for someone like King Wen to come and uplift them. But the truly outstanding gentleman will uplift himself, even if a King Wen doesn't appear."
  (13.11) 孟子曰﹕「附之以韓、魏之家,如其自視欿然,則過人遠矣。」
  [7A:11] Mencius said: "If, after receiving the wealth of the families of Han and Wei, you see yourself as still being unsatisfied, then you far surpass others."
  (13.12) 孟子曰﹕「以佚道使民,雖勞不怨﹔ 以生道殺民,雖死不怨殺者。」
  [7A:12] Mencius said: "If you employ people with a sincere motive to make their life more comfortable, then even if they have to work hard, they won't blame you. If you execute people with the true motive of saving lives, then even if there is death, no one will blame the executioner."
  (13.13) 孟子曰﹕「霸者之民,驩虞如也!王者之民,皞皞如也。殺之而不怨,利之而不庸﹔民日遷善而不知爲之者。夫君子所過者化,所存者神﹔上下與天地同流,豈曰小補之哉!」
  [7A:13] Mencius said: "When someone at least has control over the political situation the people can be relaxed. If there is a true king, then they can be completely content. He can conduct executions without blame, and make profit without their feeling abused. The people return to the good every day, without knowing who is making them do so."
  "So wherever the Superior Man passes through, people are transformed; the place where he stays is spiritualized and Heaven and Earth blend harmoniously. How could you say 'he is of little help' ?"
  (13.14) 孟子曰﹕「仁言不如仁聲之入人深也。善政不如善教之得民也。善政民畏之,善教民愛之﹔善政得民財,善教得民心。」
  [7A:14] Mencius said: "Good words do not enter as deeply into a person as does a reputation for Goodness. Good government is not as effective as good teaching in terms of gaining the support of the people. If you have a good government, the people will be in awe of you. If you teach them well, they will love you. Good government gains people's wealth. Good teaching gains their hearts."
  (13.15) 孟子曰﹕「人之所不學而能者,其良能也﹔所不慮而知者,其良知也。孩提之童,無不知愛其親也﹔及其長也,無不知敬其兄也。親親,仁也﹔敬長,義也。無他,達之天下也。」
  [7A:15] Mencius said: "When people who have not studied have abilities, these are inherent abilities. When people who have not deliberated have knowledge, this is inherent knowledge. An infant carried in the arms has no lack of knowledge of how to love its parents, and when it gets older, it knows automatically how to respect its older brothers. Loving one's parents is Humaneness, respecting one's older brothers is Rightness. This is because these principles penetrate all people."
  (13.17) 孟子曰﹕「無爲其所不爲,無欲其所不欲,如此而已矣。」
  [7A:17] Mencius said: "Don't do what shouldn't be done and don't desire what shouldn't be desired. That's all there is to it."
  [13.18] 孟子曰:「人之有德慧術知者、恆存乎疢疾。獨孤臣孽子,其操心也危,其慮患也深,故達。」
  [7A:18] Mencius said: "When people have penetrating wisdom and practical knowledge it is usually because they have spent a long time in difficulty. The orphaned servant and the concubine's son handle situations with caution and think deeply when in distress. Therefore, they handle things well."
  (13.19) 孟子曰﹕「有事君人者,事是君則爲容悅者也。有安社稷臣者,以安社稷爲悅者也。有天民者,達可行於天下而後行之者也。有大人者,正己而物正者也。」
  [7A:19] Mencius said, "There are those who serve the prince, and do so to receive his favor. There are those who serve the land, and do so because it makes them happy. There are Heavenly people, who, once their excellence can be actualized in the world, actualize it. There are great men who rectify themselves—and others are rectified."
  (13.21) 孟子曰﹕「廣土衆民,君子欲之﹔所樂不存焉。中天下而立,定四海之民,君子樂之,所性不存焉。君子所性,雖大行不加焉,雖窮居不損焉,分定故也。君子所性,仁義禮智根於心﹔其生色也,□然見於面,盎於背,施於四體,四體不言而喻。」
  [7A:21] Mencius said, "The Superior Man may enjoy the possession of a large territory with many people, but this is not what he takes delight in. He may delight in being established in the realm and stabilizing the people within the four seas, but this has nothing to do with the essence of his character. The essence of his character is not something that can be enhanced by great success, or be hindered by poverty. These are one's lot."
  "The essentials of the Superior Man's character are Humaneness, Rightness, Propriety and Wisdom, which are rooted in the mind, and give rise to one's external appearance. Their luster can be seen in his face, their fullness can be seen in his back and are released into his four limbs. The four limbs reveal this without speaking."
  (13.26) 孟子曰﹕「楊子取』拔一毛而利天下,不爲也。墨子兼愛,摩頂放踵利天下,爲之。子莫執中,執中爲近之﹔執中無權,猶執一也。所惡執一者,爲其賊道也,擧一而廢百也。」
  [7A:26] Mencius said, "Yang-tzu believed in 'every man for himself.' If he could have helped the whole world by plucking out a single hair, he would not have done it. Mo Tzu believed in 'universal love.' If he had to rub his whole body smooth in order to benefit the world, he would have done it. Tzu Mo believes in holding to the center. Now 'holding to the center' comes close, but still, if you hold to the center, you have no adaptability, since you are just holding to one thing. What is bad about holding to one thing is that it robs from the Way. You hold to one, and let go of a hundred."
  (13.27) 孟子曰﹕「飢者甘食,渴者甘飮﹕是未得飮食之正也,飢渴害之也。豈惟口腹有飢渴之害,人心亦皆有害。人能無以飢渴之害爲心害,則不及人不爲憂矣。」
  [7A:27] Mencius said, "For the hungry any food is tasty and for the thirsty any drink is tasty. But they are not getting the true taste of the food and the drink, since their deprivation has perverted their sensitivity. How could only one's mouth and belly suffer from the afflictions of hunger and thirst? Peoples' minds are also afflicted."
  "When you are able to keep the afflictions of hunger and thirst from affecting your mental state, you need never be concerned about being the equal of others."
  (13.29) 孟子曰:「有爲者辟若掘井,掘井九軔而不及泉,猶爲棄井也。」
  [7A:29] Mencius said, "Working at a project is like digging a well. If you dig sixty feet and stop without hitting water, you are just throwing away the whole well."
  (13.33) 王子墊問曰﹕「士何事?」孟子曰﹕「尚志。」曰﹕「何謂尚志?」曰﹕「仁義而已矣。殺一無罪,非仁也。非其有而取之,非義也。居惡在?仁是也。路惡在?義是也。居仁由義,大人之事備矣。」
  [7A:33] The king's son, Tien, asked Mencius, "What does a gentleman do?" Mencius said, "He elevates his motives."
  "What does that mean?"
  Mencius said, "To live by Humaneness and Rightness and nothing else. If you kill a single innocent man, you are not Humane. If something is not yours and you take it, you are not Righteous. Wherever you dwell, make it Humane; whatever course you travel, make it righteous. Abiding in Humaneness and acting through Rightness—this is how the great man completes his work."
  (13.37) 孟子曰﹕「食而弗愛,豕交之也﹔愛而不敬,獸畜之也。恭敬者,幣之未將者也。恭敬而無實,君子不可虛拘。」
  [7A:37] Mencius said, "To feed someone and not love them is the same as dealing with swine. To love someone but not respect them is like raising domesticated animals. Now courtesy and respect should come before the presentation of gifts. If courtesy and respect are not genuine, the Superior Man will never be trapped by them."
  (13.38) 孟子曰﹕「形色,天性也。惟聖人然後可以踐形。」
  [7A:38] Mencius said, "Characteristics such as form and color are assigned by Heaven. Only after you are a sage can you completely suit yourself to your own form."
  [7A:40] Mencius said, "The Superior Man in teaches in five general ways according to these five types of students:"
  Those who are transformed by the deluge of a seasonal rain.
  Those whose virtue he develops.
  Those whose abilities he uncovers.
  Those whose questions he answers.
  Those who develop themselves by their own reflection.
  According to these, the Superior Man teaches in five ways.
  (13.41) 公孫丑曰﹕「道則高矣美矣,宜若登天然,似不可及也﹔何不使彼爲可几及,而日孳孳也?」孟子曰﹕「大匠不爲拙工改廢繩墨,羿不爲拙射變其彀率。君子引而不發,躍如也﹔中道而立,能者從之。」
  [7A:41] Kung Sun Chou said: "The Way is so lofty and exquisite, so when we try to ascend to it, we cannot reach it. Can you not make the people feel that somehow they can reach it so that they will keep trying every day?"
  Mencius said, "A master carpenter does not give up using the plumb line because of a clumsy helper, and Archer Yi would never change his principles of bowmanship for a clumsy archer. The Superior Man leads the student along without giving away the whole thing. He dances lightly, established in the Way. Those who can, follow him."
  (13.42) 孟子曰﹕「天下有道,以道殉身﹔天下無道,以身殉道。未聞以道殉乎人者也。」
  [7A:42] Mencius said, "When the Way prevails in the realm, people should abandon themselves to the Way. When the Way is lost in the realm, the Way should be abandoned in favor of people. I have not heard of case where those who utilize the Way abandon themselves for other men."
  (13.43) 公都子曰﹕「勝更之在門也,若在所禮而不答,何也?」孟子曰﹕「挾貴而問,挾賢而問,挾長而問,挾有勛勞而問,挾故而問﹕皆所不答也。勝更有二焉。」
  [7A:43] Kung Tu Tzu said: "When Kang of Tang last came to see you, even though his approach was not improper, you would not answer him. May I ask why?"
  Mencius said, "One who asks presuming upon his rank, his ability, his seniority; who presumes on what I might owe him, or presumes on our former acquaintance, I will not answer. In Kang Tang's case two of these apply."
  [13.44] 孟子曰:「於不可已而已者,無所不已。於所厚者薄,無所不薄也。其進鋭者,其退速。」
  [7A:44] Mencius said, "If you stop once when you shouldn't, you will always stop short. If you take one essential thing lightly, you will take everything lightly. If you advance too sharply, you will subside quickly."
  [7A:45] Mencius said, "The Superior Man cares about creatures but does not love them as if they are people. He loves people as people, but not in the intimate way he loves his parents. He loves his parents intimately and loves people as people. He loves people as people and cares about creatures."
  [13.46] 孟子曰:「知者無不知也,當務之爲急,仁者無不憂也,急親賢之爲務。堯、舜之知而不遍物,急先務也;堯、舜之仁不遍愛人,急親賢也。不能三年之喪,而緦小功之察;放飯流歠,而問無齒決:是之謂不知務。」
  [7A:46] Mencius said, "There is nothing the wise cannot understand, but they will focus on the important things. There is no one the Humane person cannot love, but s/he will focus on cultivation of intimacy with the Good. The understanding of Yao and Shun did not include everything, but they took care of what was important. Their Humaneness did not extend to every single person, but they were concerned about being intimate with the Good."
  "Those who are meticulous about the details of minor mourning for distant relatives, but who can't carry out the heavy mourning required for their parents, or the people who suck down food and drink, yet ask questions about the propriety of tearing meat with the teeth—these are people who don't know what is important."
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  7B. Chin Hsin (part two) 盡心下
  [7B:1] Mencius said, "King Hui of Liang is the antithesis of Humaneness. The Humane man takes what he loves and brings it to that which he does not love. The non-Humane man take what he does not love and brings it to that which he loves."
  Kung Sun Ch'ou said, "What do you mean?"
  Mencius said, "King Hui, just for the sake of gaining more territory, ravaged his own people and then sent them into battle. Even when they were being beaten badly, he would just send them back in again. Afraid of losing the engagement, he sent his beloved son into the fray, who was also killed. This is what I mean by 'taking that which you don't love and bringing it to that which you love.' "
  [7B:4] Mencius said, "There are men who say, 'I am good at arranging troops' and say 'I am good at military strategy.' They are great criminals. If the ruler of the state loves Humaneness, he will have no enemies in the realm . . . "
  [14.5] 孟子曰:「梓匠輪輿,能與人規矩,不能使人巧。」
  [7B:5] Mencius said, "A carpenter or a carriage-maker can give someone a compass or a square, but cannot give them skills."
  [7B:9] Mencius said, "If you don't practice the Tao yourself, it will not be practiced in the family. If you don't use the Tao in your dealings with others, you will not be able to use the Tao in your family life."
  [7B:10] Mencius said, "If you really understand how to take advantage of things, you cannot die in a year of bad harvest. If you really understand virtue, you cannot be subverted in an age of corruption."
  [7B:13] Mencius said, "There are cases of evil men possessing a kingdom, but there has never been a case where an evil man got possession of the whole realm."
  [7B:15] Mencius said, "The Sage is a teacher of one hundred generations. For example, Po Yi and Hui Liu Hsia. When people hear of the ways of Po Yi, the twisted become clear and the dispirited arouse determination. When they hear of the ways of Hui Liu Hsia, trivial people become people of substance and the narrow-minded become wide-open.6 They have encouraged people for the last one hundred generations and those of the next hundred generations who hear of them will certainly be aroused. Could they have such an effect if they were not sages? And can you imagine the amount of influence they had on those closely associated with them?"
  [7B:16] "Ren" means "humanity." The harmonious combination of the two is called the Tao."
  [7B:20] Mencius said, "The worthies made people clear with their own clarity. Nowadays the people are made clear through ignorance."
  [7B:21] Mencius said to the disciple Kao, "If mountain trails are well used, then they will become like roads. But if they are not used for a while, they become overgrown with weeds. Now weeds are overgrowing in your mind."
  [7B:24] Mencius said, "The enjoyment by the tongue of flavor, the enjoyment by the eye of color, the enjoyment by the ear of music, the enjoyment by the nose of perfumes and the enjoyment by the body of comfort, are natural and endowed by Heaven. But the Superior Man doesn't regard these as his innermost nature."
  The experience of love between parents and children, the practice of righteousness between ruler and minister, the observance of proper manners between host and guest, the possession of the wisdom for discerning Goodness and the sage's intimacy with the Tao are endowed and natural, but the Superior Man doesn't consider them as his endowments.
  [7B:25] Hao-shang Pu-Hai asked, "What kind of man is Yo Cheng Tzu?"
  Mencius said, "He is good, and he is genuine."
  "What do you mean by good, and genuine?"
  "A man that people like to be with is good. A man who keeps this goodness in himself is genuine. One who fully develops his goodness is called 'excellent.' One whose full development of goodness shines forth is called 'great.' One whose greatness transforms others is called a sage. A sage who is unfathomable is called 'transcendent.' Yo Cheng fits in the first two levels, but is not up to the last four."
  [7B:26] Mencius said, "Those who leave the Mohist school usually go to the school of Yang. Those who leave the Yang school usually come to us."
  "If they come, they should be received without hesitation. Those who participate in the current Yang-Mo debate are like someone chasing a stray pig and after it is in the pen, tying it up."
  [Comment] Anyone who has worked on a farm and has had to get a hold of a stray pig and then try to tie it, can appreciate Mencius' simile.
  [7B:27] Mencius said, "There is tax by hemp and silk; there is tax by grain; and there is tax by manpower. The smart ruler will just use one and let go of the other two. If you use two of these, there will be starvation among the people; if you use all three, families will be torn apart."
  [7B:29] Pan Ch'ang Kuo obtained an official position in Ch'i. Mencius said: "Pan Ch'ang Kuo—he's finished."
  Pan Ch'ang Kuo did indeed meet his death in Ch'i, so the disciples asked Mencius, "How did you know he would be killed?"
  Mencius said: "He was a man of little ability who had not learned of the great Way of the Superior Man. Thus, he knew enough to get himself killed, and that's it."
  [7B:31] Mencius said, "All people have something that they cannot stand to see. When this feeling penetrates to those things which they can stand, this is Humaneness. All people have something that they will not do. When this attitude penetrates to those things that they will do, this is Rightness. When people fully develop a heart which is unable to harm others, then their Humaneness is beyond the point of ever being challenged. If they are able to fully develop the kind of constitution in which theft is inconceivable, then their Rightness is beyond the point of ever being challenged. When a man can fully develop his dislike for being addressed, "Hey, you," there is no place he will go and not be Righteous. When the shih should not speak, but does, this is beguilement by speaking. When he should speak, but doesn't, this is beguilement by silence. Both can be considered as thievery."
  [7B:32] Mencius said, "Down-to-earth speech, which has far-reaching meaning is good speech. To preserve the essentials yet learn extensively—this is the good way. The words of the Superior Man are not hidden, yet the Tao is contained in them. The Superior Man concentrates on the cultivation of his own character. The common error of people is that they forget about their own garden and try to cultivate the other man's garden. They expect much from others and little from themselves."
  [7B:33] Mencius said, "What Yao and Shun had by nature, T'ang and Wu returned to. When your every action and expression operate perfectly in propriety, your virtue will be overflowing."
  Grief at funeral ceremonies is not for the purpose of the living. Holding to virtue without lapse is not for the purpose of recognition by your superiors. Speech that is truly sincere is not so in order to be called "right behavior." The Superior Man acts according to the pattern of the world in order to summon forth his destiny. That's all he does.
  [7B:35] Mencius said, "For cultivating the mind, there is nothing better than to lessen desire. If you have few desires, even if there are things you don't have, they will seem few. If you have many desires, even if you attain them, they will seem few."
  [7B:37] Wan Chang asked: "When Confucius was staying in Ch'an and said 'Let me return home, my student shih are ardent7 and impatient—they go and get what they want. I cannot forget that they are beginners.' Now, what made Confucius worry about his ardent students in Lu?"
  Mencius said, "When Confucius could not get a hold of students who followed the Middle Way, he had no recourse but to select from the ardent and the prudent. The ardent will go and get what they want. The prudent can limit themselves. Of course Confucius wanted students who could follow the Middle Way, but not necessarily being able to find such people, he had to think of his next option."
  "May I ask who he was thinking of when he said 'ardent' ?"
  "Men like Ch'in Chang, Tsang Hsi and Mu Pei."
  "Why did he call them 'ardent' ?"
  "With grandiose aspirations they would say 'The ancients did this, the ancients did that.' Boldly planning their actions, they often couldn't make good on them. Now, if the daring cannot be gotten hold of, then Confucius would try to find those shih who would not let themselves be defiled. These are the prudent, who are next best."
  Chang asked, "Confucius said: 'When someone passes by my gate and does not enter, the only time I don't regret it is when it is a "conventional townsman." These conventional townsmen are thieves of virtue.' What sort of people were these, that he called 'conventional townsmen' ?"
  Mencius said, "They criticize the ardent, saying 'How can they be so grandiose such that their words do not reflect their actions and actions do not reflect their words, and how can they justify themselves with 'the ancients did this, and the ancients did that.' ' "
  "And they criticize the prudent, saying, 'How can they be so aloof and cold? We are all born in this world, so we should be part of it. Being good here and now is sufficient.' They obsequiously flatter their contemporaries. These are the so-called 'conventional townsmen.' "
  Wan Chang said, "The whole town calls them 'acceptable men' —there is no place where they can go where they will not be regarded as 'acceptable men.' Why did Confucius call them 'thieves of virtue' ?"
  Mencius answered: "If you want to blame them for something, there is nothing in particular that you can blame them for. If you want to correct them, there is nothing in particular that you can correct them for. They follow the current customs and consent to the vices of the age. They seem to abide in loyalty and honesty, and their actions seem pure. Everyone follows them and because people follow them, people become incapable of entering the Tao of Yao and Shun. Thus, they are called 'thieves of virtue.' "
  "Confucius said, 'I don't like simulacra.8 I don't like tares (grain weeds) because they can be confused with real grain. I don't like eloquence, because it can be confused with Rightness. I don't like sharpness of tongue, because it might be confused with honesty. I don't like the music of Chang, because it might be confused with good music. I don't like purple, because it might be confused with vermilion and I don't like conventional townsmen, because they might be confused with the virtuous.' "
  "The Superior Man returns to the constant and nothing more. Once the constant is properly apprehended, the people will be awakened. Once they are awakened, there will be no more of their evil deception."
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Notes
  1. The title shih is translated into English with such terms as "elite" , "knight" , "scholar," etc. While the shih of later Chinese history is more definitely a scholar than a knight, in the Analects, what Confucius is referring to is a level of spiritual/moral development, as well as academic and martial cultivation which is clearly above that of the average person. Thus, we can understand the shih to be a person who is well on the way toward becoming a "Superior Man," (君子) but is not quite there yet.[back]
  2. He-nei and He-dong were neighboring regions separated by a large river.[back]
  3. Two somewhat infamous rulers of the 7th century BCE.[back]
  4. From the Book of Odes, 231. This verse is from a story about a small bird who is being harassed by an owl, and who used a moment of respite to provide some self-protection.[back]
  5. A legendary famous cook in ancient China.[back]
  6. Po Yi fled from the tyrant Chou but returned to serve King Wen. Liu Hsia Hui was a statesman of Lu, famous for his integrity (Analects. 18:2).[back]
  7. Wan Chang is referring to the story in Analects 5:21. For a discussion of the term "ardent" (kuang), see the comment to Analects 13:21.[back]
  8. A simulacrum is something which resembles closely something else, and can be mistaken for it.[back]